The Herodians: Judea During the Birth of Christianity
Podcast Episodes: From 2.15 The Maccabean Century to 2.20.
Back to Show Notes Contents.
Under the patronage of the Romans, Herod the Great supplanted the squabbling Maccabean rulers to construct a kingdom about the same size as the old kingdoms of Israel and Judah, together with territories in Syria that had never been part of the old Hebrew remit. He and his successors ruled subjects who were both Judean and Gentile.
The Herodian Rulers
I have omitted a few descendants of Herod the Great. They had their heads chopped off by Herod before they could govern, or disappeared into a grateful obscurity.
|Herod I the Great||Founder||37 BC–4 BC||King of the ancient kingdoms of Judah and Israel
||Massacre of the Innocents|
|Aristobulus IV||Son of Herod I by his Maccabean wife Mariamne||31 BC–7 BC||Never ruled. Murdered by Herod the Great. Traditionally regarded as the last of the Maccabeans.||—|
|Herod Archelaus||Son of Herod I||4 BC–6 AD||Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumaea||Infancy narrative of Jesus|
|Herod Antipas||Son of Herod I||4 BC–39 AD||Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea||John the Baptist, life of Jesus, trial of Jesus
|Phillip the Tetrarch||Son of Herod I||4 BC–34 AD||Tetrarch of the northeast corner of his father's kingdom||—|
|Herod Agrippa I||Son of Aristobulus IV||39–44||39: Granted the ethnarchy of his uncle Philip. 41: King of Judea, Galilee, Perea and Samaria.||Death of James, son of Zebedee. Arrest and imprisonment of Peter.
|Herod V (II)||Son of Aristobulus IV||41–48||41: King of Chalcis in northern Palestine. 44: Controller of the Temple.||—|
|Herod Agrippa II||Son of Herod Agrippa I||50–93||50: King of Chalcis. 53-57: Awarded various small territories. Effectively became ethnarch of the Jews, although he did not live in Judea.||Paul's appeal to Caesar. He was also a pro-Roman conservative voice appealing for calm before the Great Revolt.|
After Herod: The Division of the Kingdom
At Herod's death his kingdom was dismembered. Some portions went to his sons Herod Antipas, Herod Archelaus, and Phillip. Other portions the Romans assigned to the province of Syria.