History in the Bible Podcast

The Two Kingdoms of Israel and Judah: 920–720 BC

Podcast Episodes: 1.42 The Kingdom Sundered to 1.51.

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The Bible depicts Solomon's reign as a vast golden empire of peace, fame, and prosperity. It turned to ashes mere weeks after his death. The vast majority of the Hebrews, the northern tribes, rebelled against his feckless son Rehoboam and established their own kingdom, under Solomon's repentant taskmaster Jeroboam. They called their kingdom Israel. The Bible often refers to it as Ephraim, after one of its tribes. In Assyrian and other records it is often called Samaria, after its capital city.

In the south the rump kingdom of Judah remained loyal to the line of it's son David. The southern kingdom is traditionally considered to have consisted of just two tribes, Benjamin and Judah. This ignores the fact that Simeon had been absorbed into Judah at some point in the past, and that the Levites were still around. Until the destruction of Israel, Judah was a small and impoverished rural kingdom.

Map of the Two Kingdoms

The two kingdoms of Israel and Judah

The two kingdoms of Israel and Judah, about 930–722 BC.

Map of the Regional Powers

This map shows the regional powers during the period of the two kingdoms, Iron Age II. The main regional power was the kingdom of Aram-Damascus, which was strong enough to act as a buffer from Assyrian incursions for many years. The kingdoms alternately warred against Aram-Damascus or allied with it against the Assyrians.

800 BC. The regional powers during the two kingdoms period.

800 BC. Iron Age II. The regional powers during the two kingdoms period. From Wikipedia, author unknown.

Synoptic Timeline of the Kings of Israel and Judah

The books of II Kings and II Chronicles give a wealth of information about the accession dates and reigns of the kings of the two kingdoms. Unfortunately, that information is riddled with inconsistencies. Moreover, it cannnot be reconciled with Egyptian, Assyrian and Syrian records. Some scholars have devoted entire careers to untangling the mess. It does not help that many kings are referred to by different names in the Bible, and there is even the possibility that King Jehoram of Judah is the same person as King Jehoram of Israel. I have used the dating system from Miller and Hayes.

Click the chart to enlarge. You can also get a handy-dandy one-page printable pdf of the chart. When you print it out please check the "Fit to page" (or equivalent) box in your pdf print dialog box.

But wait, there's more! For a poster-sized version of the history of Israel and Judah, visit our site Garrys Charts.

Chart of the kings of Israel and Judah

Synoptic timeline of the Kings of Israel and Judah. Click to enlarge.

Regnal Dates of the Kings of Israel and Judah

Kings of Judah

King Transliterated Hebrew Name Regnal dates according to Miller and Hayes Maximal regnal dates from other scholars
House of David
Rehoboam Rehavam 926–910 932–913
Abijah Aviyam 909–907 915–911
Asa Asa 906–878 913–870
Jehoshaphat Yehoshafat 877–853 873–845
Jehoram (Joram) Yehoram (Yoram) 852–841 851–841
Ahaziah (Jehoahaz I) Ahazyahu (Yehoahaz) 840 843–841
Athaliah Atalyah 839–833 842–835
Joash (Jehoash) Yoash (Yehoash) 832–803 842–796
Amaziah Amatzyah 802–786 805–767
Uzziah (Azariah) Uziyah (Azaryah) 785–760 788–736
Jotham Yotam 759–744 758–730
Ahaz Ahaz 743–728 742–715
Hezekiah Hizkiyah 727–699 726–687
Manasseh Menasheh 698–644 697–642
Amon Amon 643–642 643–640
Josiah Yoshiyahu 641–610 641–609
Jehoahaz II (Shallum) Yehoahaz (Shallum) 609 609
Jehoiakim (Eliakim) Yehoyakim (Eliakim) 608–598 609–598
Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) Yehoyakin (Yekonyahu) 598 598–597
Zedekiah (Mattaniah) Zidkiyahu (Mattanyahu) 598–586 597–586

Kings of Israel

King Transliterated Hebrew Name Regnal dates according to Miller and Hayes Maximal regnal dates from other scholars
House of Jeroboam
Jeroboam I Yeravam 927–906 931–901
Nadab Nadav 905–904 911–900
House of Baasha
Baasha Baasha 903–882 910–877
Elah Elah 881–880 887–876
House of Zimri
Zimri Zimri 880 886–876
House of Omri
Omri Omri 879–869 886–869
Ahab Ahav 868–854 875–850
Ahaziah Ahazyahu 853–852 853–849
Jehoram (Joram) Yehoram (Yoram) 851–840 852–841
House of Jehu
Jehu Yehu 839–822 842–814
Jehoahaz Yehoahaz 821–805 819–798
Jehoash (Joash) Yehoash 804–789 806–782
Jeroboam II Yeravam 788–748 791–746
Zechariah Zekaryah 747 753–746
House Of Shallum
Shallum Shallum 747 749–745
House of Menahem
Menahem Menahem 746–737 752–738
Pekahiah Pekahyah 736–735 742–736
House of Pekah
Pekah Pekah 734–731 740–732
House of Hoshea
Hoshea Hoshea 730–722 732–722

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